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    No need to bypass security with a boot disk – 17 year old Windows exploit found

    The problem has been discovered in the Virtual DOS Machine (VDM) introduced in 1993 to support 16-bit applications (real mode applications for 8086). VDM is based on the Virtual 8086 Mode (VM86) in 80386 processors and, among other things, intercepts hardware routines such as BIOS calls. Google security team member Tavis Ormandy has found several vulnerabilities in this implementation that allow an unprivileged 16-bit program to manipulate the kernel stack of each process via a number of tricks. This potentially enables attackers to execute code at system privilege level.

    In addition to the unpatched hole in Internet Explorer, a now published hole in Windows allows users with restricted access to escalate their privileges to system level – and this is believed to be possible on all 32-bit versions of Windows from Windows NT 3.1 up to, and including Windows 7. While the vulnerability is likely to affect home users in only a minor way, the administrators of corporate networks will probably have their hands full this week.

    The problem is caused by flaws in the Virtual DOS Machine (VDM) introduced in 1993 to support 16-bit applications (real mode applications for 8086). VDM is based on the Virtual 8086 Mode (VM86) in 80386 processors and, among other things, intercepts hardware routines such as BIOS calls. Google security team member Tavis Ormandy has found several vulnerabilities in this implementation that allow an unprivileged 16-bit program to manipulate the kernel stack of each process via a number of tricks. This potentially enables attackers to execute code at system privilege level.

    Ormandy has also published a suitable exploit which functions under Windows XP, Windows Server 2003 and 2008, Windows Vista and Windows 7. When tested by the The H’s associates at heise Security, the exploit opened a command prompt in the system context, which has the highest privilege level, under Windows XP and Windows 7. No patch has become available, although Ormandy reports that Microsoft was already informed of the hole in mid 2009. The developer decided to publish the information regardless because, in his opinion, there is a simple workaround: to disable the MS-DOS subsystem.

    The workaround requires users to start the group policy editor and enable the “Prevent access to 16-bit applications” option in the Computer ConfigurationAdministrative TemplatesWindows ComponentsApplication Compatibility section. When tested with these settings by the heise Security team, the exploit no longer functioned. The settings reportedly don’t cause any major compatibility problems for most users while no 16-bit applications are being used.

    Update – The above option is only available through the group policy editor on Windows 2003 systems. Some versions of Windows do not include a group policy editor. As an alternative, users can also create a registry key under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREPoliciesMicrosoftWindowsAppCompat with a D-Word value of VDMDissallowed = 1. Under Windows XP, to prevent the system from being vulnerable to the exploit, users can place the following text:

    Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

    [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREPoliciesMicrosoftWindowsAppCompat]

    “VDMDisallowed”=dword:00000001

    into a file called vdmdisallow.reg and double click the file. Windows will then automatically import the key (admin rights are required to perform this action).

    Update 2 - Microsoft has now confirmed the privilege escalation hole in Windows. The company says that it wants to complete its investigation of the vulnerability and will then decide whether, how and when to close it.

    See Also:

    REDMOND — When it rains, it pours. Especially in the Seattle area. Tavis Ormandy has published full details on a privilege escalation hack of all versions of Windows including Windows 7.

    The exploit takes advantage of a bug in the Windows implementation of the ‘virtual DOS machine’ used to run legacy 16-bit programs. The exploit can be avoided by turning the VDM ‘feature’ off but the danger of course is that enough Windows lusers won’t know about the bug and/or bother turning the ‘feature’ off.

    16-bit applications need BIOS support; the Windows kernel supports virtual BIOS interrupts in its ‘Virtual-8086’ mode monitor code. The code is implemented in two stages. The #GP trap handler transitions to the second stage when CS:EIP faults with specific ‘magic’ values.

    The transition requires (subsequent to authentication) restoring the context and the call stack from the faulting trap frame. But the authentication process is flawed, relying as it does on three incorrect assumptions.

    • Setting up a VDM context requires SeTcbPrivilege.The barrier to getting a VDM context can be subverted by requesting the NT VDM subsystem and then using CreateRemoteThread() to run code in the context of the VDM subsystem. The VDM subsystem already has the necessary flag set.
    • Ring 3 (unprivileged) code cannot install arbitrary code segment selectors.Using the two least significant bits of CS/SS to calculate the privilege of a task doesn’t work when it comes to Virtual-8086 mode. The 20-bit addressing (by adding CS << 4 to the 16-bit IP) is also used to map onto the protected linear Virtual-8086 address space. If CS can be set to an arbitrary value, then the privilege calculation can be circumvented.
    • Ring 3 (unprivileged) code cannot forge a trap frame.Returns to user mode are through IRET. An invalid context can cause IRET to fail pre-commit, which in turn forges a trap frame. And even with address randomisation it’s trivial to use NtQuerySystemInformation() to obtain the address of the second stage BIOS handler.

    Affected Systems

    This bug dates back 17 years and affects all systems released since 27 July 1993 – Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, and Windows 7. See the links below for further details.

    See Also
    MITRE: CVE-2010-0232
    Windows plagued by 17-year-old privilege escalation bug
    NEOPHASIS: Trap Handler Allows Users to Switch Kernel Stack

    Ham Radio Links

    Amateur Packet Radio Australian

    Aussiewide Packet Radio Network http://www.ampr.org.au/

    AAPRA  http://members.optusnet.com.au/aapra

    Queensland APRS Users Group http://www.tech-software.net/

    VK2KFJ’s Packet Radio Links page http://www.qsl.net/vk2kfj/pacradio.html

    VK4ZU http://www.users.on.net/~trevorb/

    VK5 AX25 Packet Network Map (VK5AH) http://homepages.picknowl.com.au/wavetel/vk5pack.htm

    Winlink

    Winpack

    International

    Amateur Packet Radio Gateways http://www.ampr-gates.net/frame_e.htm

    Amateur Packet Radio, net 44, and AMPR.ORG `http://www.ampr.org/

    American Febo Enterprises http://www.febo.com/index.html

    BayCom http://www.baycom.org/

    FUNET http://www.funet.fi/pub/ham/packet/

    FUNET ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/ham/packet/

    F4DAY http://perso.wanadoo.fr/jf.fourcadier/index_e.htm

    F6FBB http://www.f6fbb.org/

    GB7DIP TNOS/PBBS http://www.qsl.net/gb7dip/access.html

    G4JKQ TCP/IP Telnet listing http://www.qsl.net/g4jkq/tcp.htm

    G7JJF TNC Driver Support (WINTNC) http://www.g7jjf.demon.co.uk/

    High speed packet http://hydra.carleton.ca/articles/hispeed.html

    High Speed Packet radio http://www.lmrgroup.com/ke3ht/hspr.html

    High-speed Packet Radio http://cacofonix.nt.tuwien.ac.at/~oe1kib/Radio/

    KE5FX http://www.qsl.net/ke5fx/

    K4ABT (home page) http://www.packetradio.com/

    Linux® / Amateur Radio Information http://delbert.matlock.com/linux-radio.htm

    Linux AX25-HOWTO http://tldp.org/HOWTO/AX25-HOWTO/

    PA3CGO http://www.qsl.net/pa3gco/

    Packet Info and Downloads http://www.packetradio.com/

    Packet Links http://www.stack.serpukhov.su/~victor/hamradio/packet/packet.html

    Packet Net (VK5 packet map) http://www.packetnet.org/

    Packet Net (FBB software) http://www.packetnet.org/fbb.htm

    PAcket Digital Amateur Network (PADAN) http://www.weaksignals.com/

    Radio-TNC Wiring Diagrams http://users3.ev1.net/~medcalf/ztx/wire/

    RST http://www.qsl.net/on1blu/

    Slovenian ATV/Packet http://lea.hamradio.si/~s51kq/

    Sound Card Packet http://www.qsl.net/soundcardpacket/index.html

    TAPR http://www.tapr.org/

    TNC-X http://www.tnc-x.com/

    TPK http://www.f6fbb.org/f1ebn/index.htm

    TNOS Central http://www.lantz.com/tnos/

    TVIPUG http://www.tvipug.org

    WA4DSY 56k RF Modem http://www.wa4dsy.net/

    Yet Another 9k6 Modem http://www.microlet.com/yam/

     

    Sound Card Packet

    ILINKBOARDS.com http://www.ilinkboards.com/

    Sound Card Buddy http://www.sparetimegizmos.com/Hardware/SoundBuddy.htm

    Soundcard Interfacing http://www.qsl.net/wm2u/interface.html

    Sound Card Packet AGWPE (KC2RLM) http://www.patmedia.net/ralphmilnes/soundcardpacket/

    Sound Card Interface with Tone Keyer (WA8LMF) http://members.aol.com/wa8lmf/ham/tonekeyer.htm

    QDG sound card interface

    Return to Top


    Winlink

    Winlink! 2000 http://winlink.org/

    Aussie Winlink http://www.aussiewinlink.org

    Pactor Communications Australia http://www.pca.cc/


    Winpack

    Winpack home page http://www.peaksys.co.uk/

    Winpack info http://www2.tpg.com.au/users/peteglo/winpack.htm

     

    TNC information

    General

    Setting Your TNC’s Audio Drive Level http://www.febo.com/packet/layer-one/transmit.html

    TNC and Radio mods http://www.johnmather.free-online.co.uk/tnc.htm

    MFJ

    MFJ-1278B Care and maintenance http://www.qsl.net/ke4mob/

    AEA

    AEA radio and TNC mods http://www.k7on.com/mods/aea/mods/aeamod.txt

    Other suppliers

    BYONICS http://byonics.com/

    Fox Delta http://www.foxdelta.com/

    Kantronics http://www.kantronics.com/

    PacComm http://www.paccomm.com/

    The DXZone Digital and Packet Radio http://www.dxzone.com/catalog/Manufacturers/Digital_and_Packet_Radio/

    Tigertronics http://www.tigertronics.com/

    Timewave http://www.timewave.com/amprods.html

    TNC-X – The Expandable TNC  http://www.tnc-x.com/


    Gateways

    Amateur Packet Radio Gateways http://www.ampr-gates.net

    G4JKQ http://www.g4jkq.co.uk/

    The Gateways Home Page http://www.ampr-gateways.org/

     

    High-Speed Digital Networks and Multimedia (Amateur)

    North Texas High Speed MultiMedia group http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ntms-hsmm/

    Also take a look at the wireless LAN pages


    APRS

    Aus APRS http://www.radio-active.net.au/vk2_aprs.html

    APRS http://www.radio-active.net.au/web/gpsaprs/aprsrept.html

    APRS http://aprs.rutgers.edu/

    APRS http://www.cave.org/aprs/

    APRS in Adelaide http://vk5.aprs.net.au/

    AVR-Microcontroller http://www.qsl.net/dk5jg/aprs_karten/index.html

    APRS in the UK http://www.aprsuk.net/

    aprsworld http://www.aprsworld.net

    APRS.DE http://www.aprs.de/

    APRS-Berlin http://www.aprs-berlin.de/

    APRS-Frankfurt http://www.aprs-frankfurt.de/

    BYONICS (Electronics Projects for Amateur Radio) http://www.byonics.com/

    CanAPRS http://www.canaprs.net/

    Dansk APRS Gruppe http://www.aprs.dk/

    findU.com http://www.findu.com/

    France APRS http://www.franceaprs.net/

    Kansas City APRS Working Group http://www.kcaprs.org/

    KD4RDB http://wes.johnston.net/aprs/

    Live Australian APRS data maps http://www.aprs.net.au/japrs_live.html

    NIAN http://nian.aprs.org/

    Queensland APRS Users Group http://www.tech-software.net/

    Tri-State APRS Working Group http://www.tawg.org/


    Other Digital Modes

    General

    HF-FAX http://www.hffax.de/index.html

    ZL1BPU http://www.qsl.net/zl1bpu/

    Morse Code

    CW Operators’ QRP Club Inc. http://www.users.on.net/~zietz/qrp/club.htm

    Fists Down Under http://fistsdownunder.morsekeys.com

    LEARN MORSE CODE in one minute ! http://www.learnmorsecode.com/

    MRX morse code http://www.mrx.com.au/

    Not Morse Code, Slow Scan , Packet or APRS

    HamDream by HB9TLK (digital radio) http://www.qslnet.de/member/hb9tlk/

    JE3HHT, Makoto (Mako) Mori http://www.qsl.net/mmhamsoft/

    PSK31 and other PC Magic http://www.psk31.com/

    WSJT ACTIVITY IN AU (follow link) http://www.tased.edu.au/tasonline/vk7wia/


    Amateur Digital Radio

    AR Digital Voice Communications http://www.hamradio-dv.org/

    Australian National D-Star http://www.dstar.org.au/

    Ham Radio digital info http://www.hamradio.com/pdf/dstar.pdf

    ICOM America digital http://www.icomamerica.com/amateur/dstar/

    Temple University Digital Voice Project http://www.temple.edu/k3tu/digital_voice.htm

    Temple University Vocoder Redux http://www.temple.edu/k3tu/VocoderRedux.pdf

    WinDRM – HF Digital Radio Mondiale http://n1su.com/windrm/

     

    D-Star

    Australian D-Star information http://www.dstar.org.au/

    D-Star wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D-STAR

    ICOM America D-Star Forums http://www.icomamerica.com/en/support/forums/tt.asp?forumid=2

     

    Software Defined Radio

    FlexRadio Systems Software Defined Radios http://www.flex-radio.com/

    Rocky software for SoftRock-40 hardware http://www.dxatlas.com/rocky/

    SDRadio – a Software Defined Radio http://digilander.libero.it/i2phd/sdradio/

    SoftRock-40 Software Defined Radio http://www.amqrp.org/kits/softrock40/index.html

    The Weaksignals pages og Alberto I2PHD (software)  http://www.weaksignals.com/


    Digital Radio

    BBC digital Radio http://www.bbc.co.uk/digitalradio/

    Digital Audio Broadcasting http://www.digitalradio.ca/

    Digital Radio Broadcasting http://happy.emu.id.au/lab/info/digradio/index.html

    Digital Radio http://www.magi.com/~moted/dr/

    DRDB http://www.drdb.org/

    DRM – Digitaler Rundfunk unter 30 MHz http://www.b-kainka.de/drm.htm#dritte

     

    Amateur Radio Direction Finding

    Amateur Radio Direction Finding and Orienteering http://vkradio.com/ardf.html

    Amateur Radio Direction Finding Webring http://www.qsl.net/vk3zpf/webring1.htm

    Homing In http://members.aol.com/homingin/

    RON GRAHAM ELECTRONICS (ARDF and more) http://users.mackay.net.au/~ron/

    Victorian ARDF Group Inc. http://www.ardf.org.au/


    Repeater Linking

    There are currently There are 5 internet linking projects that I know of :-

    IRLP,  iPHONE, iLINK, eCHOLINK and WIN SYSTEM (May 2005)

    EchoLink http://www.echolink.org/

    Hamlink (K1RFD) http://www.hamlink.net/

    KWARC (live audio) http://www.kwarc.org/listen/

    Internet Linking http://www.qsl.net/g3zhi/index2.html

    IRLP http://www.irlp.net/

    IRLP status http://status.irlp.net

    WIN SYSTEM http://www.winsystem.org/

    iLINK

    G4CDY-L Internet Gateway http://www.g4cdy.co.uk/

    iLink http://www.aacnet.net./

    VA3TO iLINK INTERFACE http://www.ilinkca.com/

    VK2JTP iLINK gateway http://www.qsl.net/vk2jtp/

    WB2REM & G4CDY’S  iLINK boards http://www.ilinkboards.com/

    WB4FAY http://www.wb4fay.com/ilink_FAQ.html

    INTERFACES

    ILINKBOARDS.com http://www.ilinkboards.com/


    laser diodes

    A R Laser Communications http://www.qsl.net/wb9ajz/laser/laser.htm

    Australian Optical DX Group http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Optical_DX/

    Driver Enhancements http://www.misty.com/people/don/laserdps.htm#dpsdepm

    European Laser Communications http://www.emn.org.uk/laser.htm

    Ronja http://atrey.karlin.mff.cuni.cz/~clock/twibright/ronja/


    Amateur Radio Licence

    radiofun http://www.alphalink.com.au/~parkerp/gateway.htm

    Worldwide Information on Licensing for Radio Amateurs by OH2MCN http://www.qsl.net/oh2mcn/license.htm


    Amateur Radio Clubs and Organisations

    Also see ATV link page

    and VHF link page

    Australian

    Adelaide Hills Amateur Radio Society http://www.qsl.net/vk5bar/

    Amateur Radio Victoria http://www.amateurradio.com.au/

    Barossa Amateur Radio Club VK5BRC http://www.qsl.net/vk5brc/

    Brisbane Amateur Radio Club http://www.qsl.net/vk4ba/index.html

    Brisbane VHF Group

    Central Coast Amateur Radio Club http://www.ccarc.org.au/

    Central Goldfields A R Club http://www.cgfar.com/

    CHIFLEY A R CLUB http://chifley.radiocorner.net/

    Coffs Harbour & District Amateur Radio Club http://www.qsl.net/vk2ep/index.html

    CW Operators’ QRP Club Inc. http://www.users.on.net/~zietz/qrp/club.htm

    Eastern and Mountain District Radio Club http://www.emdrc.com.au

    Gold Coast AR Society http://www.gcars.com.au/

    Healesville Amateur Radio Group http://www.harg.org.au/

    Historical Wireless Society of South East Queensland http://www.hws.org.au/

    Ipswich Metro Radio Group http://imrg.ips-mesh.net/

    Lockyer Valley Radio and Electronic Club Inc http://www.qsl.net/vk4wil/

    Manly-Warringah Radio Society http://www.qsl.net/vk2mb/

    NWTARIG http://vk7ax.tassie.net.au/nwtarig/

    QRP Amateur Radio Club International http://www.qrparci.org/

    Queensland APRS Users Group http://www.tech-software.net/

    RADAR Club Inc http://radarclub.tripod.com

    Radio Amateurs Old Timers Club Australia Inc http://www.raotc.org.au/

    Radio Sport http://www.uq.net.au/radiosport/

    Radio and Electronics Association of Southern Tasmania http://reast.asn.au/

    Riverland Amateur Radio Club http://www.rrc.org.au/

    South Australian Packet User Group Inc. (SAPUG) http://www.sapug.ampr.org/

    SERG http://serg.mountgambier.org

    South Coast AMATEUR RADIO Club http://www.scarc.org.au/

    SOUTHSIDE AMATEUR RADIO SOCIETY http://www.qsl.net/vk4wss/

    Sunshine Coast Amateur Radio Club http://vk4wis.org/

    VK Young Amateur Radio Operator’s Net http://www.geocities.com/vk_ya/

    VK3APC http://www.mdrc.org.au/

    VK3BEZ (WIA Eastern Zone Amateur Radio Club) http://www.qsl.net/vk3bez/

    VK4WIL http://www.qsl.net/vk4wil/

    West Australia Repeater Group http://www.warg.org.au

    WESTLAKES AR Club http://www.westlakesarc.org.au/

    WIA VK4 Qld http://www.wiaq.com/

    WIA VK4 QNEWS NEWSROOM http://www.wiaq.com/qnews/upload/qnews.htm

    WIA http://www.wia.org.au/

    WICEN Australia http://www.wicen.org.au/

    WICEN Brisbane Qld

    New Zealand

    NZART http://www.nzart.org.nz/nzart/

    Papakura Radio Club http://www.qsl.net/zl1vk/

    Wanganui Amateur Radio Society Inc. http://www.zl2ja.org.nz/

    Wellington VHF Group http://www.vhf.org.nz/

    International

    American QRP Club http://www.amqrp.org/index.html

    ARRL http://www.arrl.org/

    Clear Lake Amateur Radio Club http://www.clarc.org/

    FRARS http://www.frars.org.uk/

    HKAR http://www.hkra.org/

    HRDXA http://www.qsl.net/vr2dxa/

    KIDSHAMRADIO http://www.kidshamradio.com/

    K2MFF Amateur Radio club http://www-ec.njit.edu/~k2mff/

    North TeXas Repeater Association http://www.ntxra.com/main_page.htm

    N0WGE http://www.sckans.edu/~sireland/radio/

    The Repeater Builders Technical Information Page http://www.repeater-builder.com/rbtip/index.html#main-index

    Richardson Wireless Klub http://www.k5rwk.org/

    RADARS http://www.mbc.co.uk/RADARS/

    RSGB http://www.rsgb.org/

    SARL http://www.sarl.org.za/

    Submarine Veterans Amateur Radio http://w0oog.50megs.com/

    Southgate AR club http://www.southgatearc.org/index.htm

    TEARA http://www.teara.org/

    The 500 KC Experimental Group for Amateur Radio http://www.500kc.com/

    Tucson Amateur Packet Radio http://www.tapr.org/

    W6DEK 435 Los Angeles http://www.w6dek.com/


    Amateur Radio

    Australian

    Australian AR Repeater Map http://vkham.com/australimaps.html

    AMATEUR RADIO WIKI http://www.amateur-radio-wiki.net

    HAM SHACK COMPUTERS http://www4.tpgi.com.au/users/vk6pg/

    Ham Radio in Australia with VK1DA http://members.ozemail.com.au/~andrewd/hamradio/

    HF Radio Antenna Tuners http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/eagle33/elect/ant_tuner.htm

    Queensland AR Repeater listings http://vkham.com/Repeater/vk4map.html

    Radioactive Networks: Ham http://www.radio-active.net.au/web/ham/

    Tony Hunt VK5AH (Home of Adelaides 10m Repeater) http://homepages.picknowl.com.au/wavetel/default.htm

    VK1DA’s Amateur Radio Web Directory vk1da.net/radlink.html

    VK1KEP http://www.pcug.org.au/~prellis/amateur/

    VK1OD owenduffy.net

    VK2BA (AM radio) http://www.macnaughtonart.com/default.htm

    VK3PA http://www.vk3pa.com/home.asp

    VK3UKF http://members.fortunecity.co.uk/vk3ukf/index.html

    VK3XPD http://www.users.bigpond.com/alandevlin/index.html

    VK3YE’s Gateway to AR http://www.alphalink.com.au/~parkerp/gateway.htm

    VK3ZQB http://members.datafast.net.au/vk3zqb/

    VK4CEJ http://www.hfradio.org/vk4cej/hamlinks.html

    VK4TEC http://www.tech-software.net/

    VK4TUB http://www.vk4tub.org/

    VK4ZGB http://members.optusnet.com.au/jamieb/index.html

    VK4ZU http://www.users.on.net/~trevorb/

    VK5BR http://users.tpg.com.au/users/ldbutler/

    VK5KK http://www.ozemail.com.au/~tecknolt/index.html

    VK8JJ http://www.qsl.net/vk8jj/

    New Zealand

    Micro Controller Projects for Radio Amateurs and Hobbyists http://www.qsl.net/zl1bpu/micro/index.htm

    Precision Frequency Transmission and Reception http://www.qsl.net/zl1bpu/micro/Precision/index.htm

    ZL3TMB http://www.hamradio.co.nz/

    International

    AC6V’s AR & DX Reference http://www.ac6v.com/

    Amateur radio with Knoppix http://www.afu-knoppix.de/

    Amateur Radio Soundblaster Software Collection http://www.muenster.de/~welp/sb.htm

    AM fone.net http://www.amfone.net

    AMRAD Low Frequency Web Page http://www.amrad.org/projects/lf/index.html

    DL4YHF http://www.qsl.net/dl4yhf/

    Direction finding http://members.aol.com/homingin/

    DSP Links http://users.iafrica.com/k/ku/kurient/dsp/links.html

    Electric-web.org www.electric-web.org

    EI4HQ http://www.4c.ucc.ie/~cjgebruers/index.htm

    EI8IC http://www.qsl.net/ei8ic/

    EHAM http://www.eham.net/

    eQSL (electronic QSL) http://www.eqsl.cc/qslcard/

    HamInfoBar http://www.haminfobar.co.uk/

    Felix Meyer http://home.datacomm.ch/hb9abx/

    FUNET http://www.funet.fi/pub/ham/

    F4DAY http://perso.wanadoo.fr/jf.fourcadier/index_e.htm

    Gateway to Amateur Radio http://www.alphalink.net.au/~parkerp/gabra.htm

    Grid Square Locator http://www.arrl.org/locate/grid.html

    G3PTO http://www.qsl.net/g3pto/

    G4KLX (The [ON/]G4KLX Page) http://www.qslnet.de/member/g4klx/

    HAM RADIO EQUIPMENT & ACCESSORIES http://www.area-ham.org/library/equip/equip.htm

    Ham-Links http://www.k1dwu.net/ham-links/

    HAMUNIVERSE.COM http://www.hamuniverse.com/

    Hamview DSP software http://www.qsl.net/k3pgp/Hamview/hamview.htm

    Homebrew RF Test Equipment And Software http://www.qsl.net/n9zia/wireless/appendixF.html#10

    KB4VOL   link site http://pages.prodigy.com/kb4vol/

    KE5FX http://www.qsl.net/ke5fx/

    KF6VTA & KG4TBJ http://www.geocities.com/silensiosham/index.html

    KU4AY ham radio directory http://www.ku4ay.net/

    K1DWU http://www.k1dwu.net/

    K1TTT http://www.k1ttt.net/

    K1TTT Technical Reference http://www.k1ttt.net/technote/techref.html

    K3PGP http://www.k3pgp.org/

    K3TZ Ham Radio Experimentation http://www.qsl.net/k3tz/

    K6XC (links) http://home.earthlink.net/~rluttringer/

    Lighthouses (International Lighthouse/ Lightship Weekend) http://illw.net

    Links2go http://www.links2go.net/more/www.ampr.org/

    Mels AMATEUR RADIO LINK’S http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/melspage/amlinks.htm

    Michael Todd Computers & Communications http://www.arcompanion.com/

    MoDTS http://www.m0dts.co.uk/

    NT8N http://www.qsl.net/nt8n

    NW7US   (Amateur and Shortwave Radio) http://hfradio.org/

    N3EYR’s Radio Links http://www.isrv.com/~joel/radio.html

    PD0RKC http://www.qsl.net/pd0rkc/

    PI6ATV (ATV, Antenna, software, info) http://members.tripod.lycos.nl/PI6ATV/software.htm

    Radio Links http://www.angelfire.com/ri/theboss1/

    Radio Corner (forum) http://www.radiocorner.net

    Ray Vaughan http://rayvaughan.com/

    Reference http://www.panix.com/~clay/ham/

    streaming radio programs http://live365.com/home/index.live

    The Elmer HAMlet (information) http://www.qth.com/antenna/index.htm

    VE1XYL and VE1ALQ http://www.qsl.net/ve1alq/downloads/tetrode-ps/pwrsup.htm

    WB6VUB (links) http://www.mpicomputers.com/ham/

    WL7LP http://www.geocities.com/TimesSquare/Castle/3782/wl7lp.html

    W2XO http://www.w2xo.pgh.pa.us/

    XE1BEF  (DX, mods, links and more) http://www.geocities.com/xe1bef/


    Communications Equipment

    Australian

    Andrews Communication Systems http://www.andrewscom.com.au/

    AUSTRALIAN ENTERPRISE INDUSTRIAL http://www.spin.net.au/~aeitower/

    BENELEC www.benelec.com.au

    Bushcomm www.bushcomm.com.au

    G. & C. COMMUNICATIONS www.gccomm.com.au

    Hamak (RM Products Italy) http://www.hamak.com.au/

    Hamshack http://www.hamshack.com.au

    KENWOOD Australia http://www.kenwood.com.au/

    Kyle Communications http://www.kyle.com.au/

    ICOM Australia http://www.icom.net.au

    Mini-kits http://www.minikits.com.au/

    OZGEAR http://www.ozgear.com.au/

    Radio-Data (links) http://www.radio-data.net/

    Radio Specialists (equipment connectors and antenna) http://www.radiospecialists.com.au

    STRICTLY HAM http://www.strictlyham.com.au/

    TET-EMTRON www.tet-emtron.com

    Townsville CB& Communications http://www.vk4tub.org/tcb/tcb.html

    TTS Systems http://www.ttssystems.com.au/

    VK4-ICE Communications http://www.vk4ice.com

    WiNRADiO (PC based receivers) http://www.winradio.com.au

    International

    MFJ http://www.mfjenterprises.com/index.php

    Vertex Standard http://www.vxstd.com/en/index.html

    W7FG VINTAGE MANUALS CATALOGUE http://www.w7fg.com/index.html

    Z Communications Company (repair of old radio equipment) http://home.comcast.net/~zcomco/

    See also Kits and components


    Radio mods, cables, connection info

    batlabs (Motorola radio connection, cable info) http://www.batlabs.com/

    Hall Electronics http://www.hallelectronics.com/getech/proglink.htm

    Radio Mods http://www.mods.dk/

    WWW.ham.dmz.ro (mods info and more) http://www.ham.dmz.ro/

    W4RP IC-2720H Page http://www.w4rp.com/ic2720/

    XE1BEF  (DX, mods, links and more) http://www.geocities.com/xe1bef/

    Please also look at manufacture’s sites


    Lightning Protection

    www.DaStrike.com (video and links) http://www.dastrike.com/

    K9WK Amateur Radio http://www.k9wk.com/litenin.html

    Lightning Protection Institute http://www.lightning.org/

    Marine Grounding Systems http://www.sailmail.com/grounds.htm

    Moonraker boat lightning information http://www.moonraker.com.au/techni/lightning-marine.htm

    NLSI http://www.lightningsafety.com/nlsi_lhm/effect.html

    PolyPhaser http://www.polyphaser.com/

    RFI Lightning protection http://www.rfindustries.com.au/rfiproducts/lightning/lightning.htm

     

    Amateur Spread Spectrum

    Spread Spectrum Scene http://www.sss-mag.com/map.html

    Spread spectrum http://www.amrad.org/projects/ss/

    SS Info http://www.ictp.trieste.it/~radionet/1997_workshop/wireless/notes/index.htm


    Call-sign finders

    The DX Notebook http://www.dxer.org/callbook.html

    QRZ http://www.qrz.com/

    QSL.NET http://www.qsl.net/


    Equipment suppliers and manufacturers

    Easy-radio (your DNS server may have problems finding this site) http://www.easy-radio.co.uk/


    Kits and Components

    Australian and selected international suppliers

    ACRES ELECTRONICS http://www.acreselectronics.co.nz/product.htm

    Allthings http://www.allthings.com.au/

    Altronics http://www.altronics.com.au/

    Antique Electronic Supply http://www.tubesandmore.com/

    Antenna Systems and Supplies Inc. (sm) http://www.antennasystems.com/

    Av-COMM http://www.avcomm.com.au/

    BYONICS http://www.byonics.com/

    Clarke & Severn Electronics http://www.clarke.com.au

    Cliff Electronics (Aus) Pty. Ltd http://www.cliff.com.au/

    Computronics http://www.computronics.com.au/tools/

    David Hall Electronics http://www.dhe.com.au

    Dick Smith Electronics http://www.dse.com.au/cgi-bin/dse.storefront

    Digi-Key http://www.digikey.com/

    Dominion Electronics http://www.dominion.net.au/

    Electronics http://www.michelletroutman.com/index.htm

    Elliott Sound Products http://sound.westhost.com/index2.html

    Farnell http://www.farnell.com/

    Fox Delta http://www.foxdelta.com/

    G1MFG.com (ATV and more) http://www.g1mfg.com/index.html

    Hammond Mfg http://www.hammondmfg.com/

    Hy-Q International http://www.hy-q.com.au

    IRH Components http://www.irh.com.au/index.htm

    Jaycar http://www.jaycar.com.au/

    Microwave Dynamics http://www.microwave-dynamics.com/

    MicroZed Computers http://www.microzed.com.au/

    Mini-Circuits http://www.minicircuits.com/

    Mini-kits http://www.minikits.com.au/

    Mouser Electronics http://www.mouser.com/

    NEWTEK ELECTRONICS http://www.newtek.com.au/

    Oatley electronics http://www.oatleyelectronics.com/

    Ocean State Electronics http://www.oselectronics.com/

    Ozitronics http://www.ozitronics.com/

    pacific DATACOM http://www.pacificdatacom.com.au

    Picaxe http://www.Picaxe.com.au

    Prime Electronics http://www.prime-electronics.com.au/

    Radio Parts http://www.radioparts.com.au/

    R.C.S. Radio (circuit boards) http://www.rcsradio.com.au/

    RF Modules Australia (ZigBee) http:\www.rfmodules.com.au

    RFShop (Brisbane) http://www.rfshop.com.au/

    Rockby Electronics and Computers http://www.rockby.com.au/

    RS Components http://www.rsaustralia.com/

    Semtronics http://www.semtronics.com.au/

    Sicom http://www.sircom.co.nz

    Silvertone Electronics http://www.silvertone.com.au/

    South Island Component Centre (New Zealand) http://www.sicom.co.nz/

    Surplus Sales of Nebraska http://www.surplussales.com/

    Surplustronics (New Zealand) http://www.surplustronics.co.nz/

    Tandy (Australia) http://www.tandy.com.au/

    Teckics http://www.techniks.com/

    TTS Systems http://www.ttssystems.com.au/

    WB9ANQ’s Surplus Store http://www.qsl.net/wb9anq/

    Wiltronics http://www.wiltronics.com.au/

    Worldwide Electronic Components http:/www.iinet.net.au/~worcom

    13cm.co.uk http://www.13cm.co.uk/

    Also look at the ATV links



    PCB layout and schematic programs baas electronics LAYo1 PCB http://www.baas.nl/layo1pcb/uk/index.html

    Easytrax http://www.cia.com.au/rcsradio/

    Electronics WORKBENCH http://www.ewbeurope.com/Franklin Industries http://www.franklin-industries.com/Eagle/starteagle.html McCAD http://www.mccad.com/ OrCAD http://www.orcad.com/downloads.aspx TARGET 3001! http://www.ibfriedrich.com/english/engl_vordownload.htm Tech5 http://www.tech5.nl/eda/pcblayout TinyCAD http://tinycad.sourceforge.net/ VEGO ABACOM http://www.vego.nl/abacom/download/download.htm


    Amateur Satellites and space

    AMSAT http://www.amsat.org/

    AMSAT-DL http://www.amsat-dl.org/

    AMSAT-ZL (kiwisat) http://www.amsat-zl.org.nz/

    CSXT Civilian Space eXploration Team http://www.civilianspace.com/

    electric-web.org http://www.electric-web.org

    esa http://www.esa.int/esaCP

    Heavens-above http://www.heavens-above.com/

    ISS fan club http://www.issfanclub.com

    SATSCAPE   (free satellite tracking program) http://www.satscape.co.uk/

    Satellite tracking software http://perso.club-internet.fr/f1orl/index.html

    Satsignal http://www.satsignal.net/

    Space.com http://www.space.com/

    UHF-Satcom.com http://www.uhf-satcom.com

     

    Propagation

    NOAA http://www.sec.noaa.gov/

    IPS Radio and Space Services http://www.ips.gov.au/

    ITS http://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/

    Near-Real-Time MUF Map http://www.spacew.com/www/realtime.php

    Radio Mobile (path prediction) http://www.cplus.org/rmw/english1.html

    VK4ZU (Propagation) http://www.users.on.net/~trevorb/

     

    Satellite TV

    AV-COMM http://www.avcomm.com.au/

    KANSAT http://www.kansat.com.au/

    KRISTAL electronics http://www.kristal.com.au/index.html

    Lyngsat http://lyngsat.com/

    Nationwide Antenna Systems http://www.uq.net.au/~zznation/index.html

    Satcure http://www.satcure.com/

    SAT TV http://www.sattv.com.au/


     

    Radio and Scanning

    Australian

    Brisbane Radio Scanner http://www.angelfire.com/id/samjohnson/

    Extreme Worldwide Scanner Radio http://members.optushome.com.au/extremescan/scanning.html

    Newcastle Area Radio Frequency Guide http://scanhunter.tripod.com/index.html

    RADIO FREQUENCIES AND INFORMATION http://www.qsl.net/vk1zmc/information.html

    New Zealand

    Kiwi Radio http://kiwiradio.blakjak.net/

    NZscanners http://www.nzscanners.org.nz/

    Wellington Scanner Frequencies http://wsf2003.tripod.com/

    ZLScanner http://homepages.paradise.net.nz/lovegrov/

    ZL3TMB (Christchurch NZ) http://www.hamradio.co.nz/

    International

    Frequency guide http://www.panix.com/~clay/scanning/

    Incident Broadcast Network (including Australian feeds) http://www.incidentbroadcast.com

    Radio H.F.  (some ham stuff) http://www3.sympatico.ca/radiohf/

    RadioReference.com http://www.radioreference.com/index.php


    Amateur Radio DX and Contest

    DX Cluster

    AA1V’s DX Info-Page http://www.goldtel.net/aa1v/

    AC6V’s AR & DX Reference http://www.ac6v.com/

    Australian contesting http://www.vkham.com/index.html

    Buckmaster callsign database http://www.buck.com/cgi-bin/do_hamcall

    DX Greyline http://www.fourmilab.ch/cgi-bin/uncgi/Earth/action?opt=-p

    DX Summit http://oh2aq.kolumbus.com/dxs/

    DX 425 News http://www.425dxn.org/

    EHAM http://www.eham.net/

    EI8IC Global Overlay Mapper http://www.mapability.com/ei8ic/

    eQSL (electronic QSL) http://www.eqsl.cc/qslcard/

    German DX Foundation-GDXF http://www.gdxf.de/

    GlobalTuners (provides access to remotely controlled radio receivers all over the world) http://www.globaltuners.com/

    Ham Atlas by SP6NVK http://www.hamatlas.eu/

    Kiwi DX List http://groups.yahoo.com/group/kiwidxlist/

    Oceania Amateur Radio DX Group Incorporated http://odxg.org/

    Oceania DX Contest http://www.oceaniadxcontest.com/

    QRZ.COM http://www.qrz.com/site.html

    The AM Window http://www.amwindow.org/index.htm

    The Daily DX http://www.dailydx.com

    IARU QSL Bureaus http://www.iaru.org/iaruqsl.html

    International DX Association http://www.indexa.org/

    Internet Ham Atlas http://www.hamatlas.eu/

    IOTA http://www.425dxn.org/iota/

    IOTA groups and Reference http://www.logiciel.co.uk/iota/shtlist.html

    IOTA RSGB http://rsgbiota.org

    IOTA 425 http://www.425dxn.org/iota

    Island Radio Expedition Fondation http://www.islandradio.org/

    LA9HW HF Contest page http://home.online.no/~janalme/hammain.html

    NG3K Contest/DX Page http://www.cpcug.org/user/wfeidt/

    Northern California DX Foundation http://www.ncdxf.org

    Simple phrases in European Languages http://web.onetel.com/~stephenseabrook/

    SUMMITS on the AIR http://www.sota.org.uk/

    Telnet Access to DX Packet Clusters http://cpcug.org/user/wfeidt/Misc/cluster.html

    The DX Notebook http://www.dxer.org/

    VE6OA’s DX Links http://www.compusmart.ab.ca/agirard/dxlinks.htmVK Contest Club http://www.vkcc.com

    World of DK4KQ http://www.dl4kq.de/

    XE1BEF  DX and links http://www.geocities.com/xe1bef/

    Logging Software

    VK Contest Log (VKCL) http://web.aanet.com.au/mnds/

    VK/ZL Logger http://www.vklogger.com

    WinRD+ logging program http://www.rjmb.net/rd/index.htm


    Cluster

    AR-Technology AB5K.net http://www.ab5k.net/Home.aspx

    Clusse http://he.fi/clusse/

    CLX Home page http://clx.muc.de/

    DX CLUSTER programs http://pages.cthome.net/n1mm/html/English/DXClusters.htm

    DXCluster http://www.dxcluster.org/

    DXCluster.Info http://www.dxcluster.info/

    DxNet http://www.dxnet.free.fr/

    DX PacketCluster Sites on the Internet http://www.n4gn.com/cluster.html

    DXSpider – DX cluster system is written in perl http://linux.maruhn.com/sec/dxspider.html

    Packet Cluster user manual http://www.yccc.org/Resources/ysa/manual/

    The DXSpider User Manual http://www.dxcluster.org/main/usermanual_en.html

    VE7CC-1 Dx Spider Cluster http://www.ve7cc.net/

     

    Short Wave DX

    AUSTRALIAN RADIO DX CLUB http://www.ardxc.info/

    Electronic DX Press (HF, MW and VHF) http://members.tripod.com/~bpadula/edxp.html

    Contesting.com http://www.contesting.com/

    CQ World Wide DX Contest http://www.cqww.com/

    K6XX http://www.k6xx.com/

    Longwave Club of America (also Ham) http://www.lwca.org

    NIST time stations http://www.boulder.nist.gov/timefreq/stations/wwvb.htm

    OK1RR DX & Contesting Page http://www.qsl.net/ok1rr/

    Prime Time Shortwave http://www.primetimeshortwave.com/

    Radio Interval Signals http://www.intervalsignals.org/

    shortWWWave http://swww.dwerryhouse.com.au/

    SM3CER Contest Service http://www.sk3bg.se/contest/index.htm

    The British DX Club http://www.bdxc.org.uk/

    Yankee Clipper Contest Club http://www.yccc.org/

     

    Radio Scouting

    Scouts Australia JOTA/JOTI http://www.international.scouts.com.au/main.asp?iMenuID=9071085

    The history of the Jamboree On The Air http://home.tiscali.nl/worldscout/Jota/jota history.htm

    World Organization of the Scout Movement http://www.scout.org/jota/


    Australian Regulator

    ACMA http://www.acma.gov.au/

    International Regulator

    ITU http://www.itu.int/home/index.html



    Electronic Information and technical reference

    AC6V’s Technical Reference http://www.ac6v.com/techref.htm

    Chip directory http://www.embeddedlinks.com/chipdir/abc/s.htm#simm

    Circuit Sage http://www.circuitsage.com/

    CommLinx Solutions Pty Ltd http://www.commlinx.com.au/default.htm

    Computer Power Supply Mods http://www.qsl.net/vk4ba/projects/index.html

    Discover Circuits http://www.discovercircuits.com/

    Electronic Information http://www.beyondlogic.org/

    Electronics Links and Resources http://yallara.cs.rmit.edu.au/~pleelave/electronics1.html

    Epanorama (lots of links) http://www.epanorama.net/

    Electronics Tutorials http://www.electronics-tutorials.com/

    Electronic Theory http://www.electronicstheory.com/

    Fox Delta http://www.foxdelta.com/

    GREG’S DOWNLOAD PAGE http://www.rfcascade.com/index.html

    Hobby Projects (electronic resource) http://www.hobbyprojects.com/tutorial.html

    Hittite http://www.hittite.com

    Information site http://www.epanorama.net/

    ISO Date / Time http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/info/iso.htm

    Latitude/Longitude Conversion utility – 3 formats http://www.directionsmag.com/latlong.php

    New Wave Instruments (check out SS Resources) http://www.newwaveinstruments.com/index.htm

    Paul Falstad (how electronic circuits work) http://www.falstad.com/circuit/

    PINOUTS.RU (Handbook of hardware pinouts) http://pinouts.ru/

    PUFF http://www.cco.caltech.edu/~mmic/puffindex/puffE/puffE.htm

    RadioReference http://www.radioreference.com/

    RF Cafe http://www.rfcafe.com/

    RF Globalnet http://www.rfglobalnet.com

    RHR Laboratories http://www.rhrlaboratories.com/#Software

    rfshop http://www.rfshop.com.au/page7.htm

    RS232 Connections, and wiring up serial devices http://www.airborn.com.au/rs232.html

    RF Power Table

    Science Lobby (electronic links) http://www.sciencelobby.com/

    Tech FAQ http://www.tech-faq.com/

    The12volt.com (technical information for mobile electronics installers) http://www.the12volt.com/

    Electronic service

    Repair of TV Sets http://www.repairfaq.org/sam/tvfaq.htm

    Sci.Electrinic.Repair FAQ http://www.repairfaq.org/sam/tvfaq.htm

    Service engineers Forum http://www.e-repair.co.uk/index.htm

     

    Cable Data

    Andrews http://www.andrew.com/default.aspx

    Belden http://www.belden.com/

    CO-AX CABLE DATA http://www.electric-web.org/coax.htm

    Coaxial cable data http://www.qsl.net/kc6uut/coax.html

    Coaxial Cable Page http://www.cdi2.com/build_it/coaxloss.htm

    HB9ABX http://home.datacomm.ch/hb9abx/coaxdat.htm

    HB9HD http://www.hb9hd.ch/PDF/coaxcable.pdf

    KC6UUT http://www.qsl.net/kc6uut/coax.html

    NESS Engineering http://www.nessengr.com/techdata/coaxdata.html

    RF Industries cables http://www.rfindustries.com.au/rfiproducts/cablesConnectors/coaxialCables.htm

    THERFC http://www.therfc.com/coax.htm

    Times Microwave http://www.timesmicrowave.com/

    VK3KHB http://www.gak.net.au/vk3khb/atv/coaxchrt.html

    W4ZT http://w4zt.com/coax.html

    X.net Antenna cable chart http://www.x.net.au/antenna_cable.html

    50 W Coaxial Cable Information http://www.dma.org/~millersg/coax50.html

    75 W Coaxial Cable Information http://www.dma.org/~millersg/coax75.html



    Antique Radio

    Antique Electronic Supply http://www.tubesandmore.com/

    Alan Lord http://www.dundeecoll.ac.uk/sections/cs/staff/al_radio/

    Antique Radio http://antiqueradios.com/

    Apex Jr http://www.apexjr.com/

    Archives of Boatanchors http://www.tempe.gov/archives/boatanchors.html

    Australian Vintage Radio MK II http://www.southcom.com.au/~pauledgr/

    Australian Wireless (OZ-Wireless) Email List http://www.clarion.org.au/wireless/

    AWA and Fisk Radiola http://203.44.53.131/Radiola/AWA1b.htm

    Crystal Radio http://www.crystalradio.net/

    Glowbugs http://www.mines.uidaho.edu/~glowbugs/

    Hammond Museum of Radio http://www.hammondmuseumofradio.org/

    Historical Radio Society of Australia Inc. http://www.hrsa.asn.au/

    JMH’s Virtual Valve Museum http://www.tubecollector.org/numbers.htm

    John Rose’s Vintage Radio Home http://personal.nbnet.nb.ca/jrose/radios/radiomain.htm

    Klausmobile Russian Tube Directory http://klausmobile.narod.ru/td/indexe.htm

    KK7TV http://www.kk7tv.com/kk7tv.html

    Kurrajong Radio Museum http://www.vk2bv.org/museum/

    Links to Vintage Radios (Amateur) http://www.qsl.net/ka4pnv/vrlinks.htm

    Mike’s Electric Stuff http://www.netcomuk.co.uk/~wwl/electric.html

    Nostalgiar Air http://www.nostalgiaair.org/

    Phil’s Old Radios http://antiqueradio.org/

    Radio A’s Vintage Radio Page http://www.mnsi.net/~radioa/radioa.htm

    Radio Era http://www.radioera.com/

    Rap ‘n Tap http://www.midnightscience.com/rapntap/

    Replacing Capacitors http://antiqueradio.org/recap.htm

    Savoy Hill Publications http://www.valvesunlimited.demon.co.uk/Noframes/savoy_hill_publications.htm

    South East Qld Group of the HRSA http://seqg.tripod.com

    SEQG of the HRSA Crystal comp http://www.clarion.org.au/crystalset/

    SEQG One Tube Radio comp http://seqg.tripod.com/onetube/onetube.html

    TEARA’S VINTAGE RADIO LINK PAGE http://www.ipass.net/~teara/vin.html

    The Vintage Radio Emporium http://www.vintageradio.info/

    The Wireless Works http://www.wirelessworks.co.uk/

    Triode Tube Data http://www.triodeel.com/tubedata.htm Tubesworld  (Valve Audio and Valve data) http://www.tubesworld.com/

    Vintage Radio http://www.vintage-radio.com/index.shtml

    Vintage Radio Times http://www.vintageradiotimes.com/Page_1x.html

    Vintage Radios and programs http://www.compusmart.ab.ca/agirard/VINTAGE.HTM

    Vintage Radios UK http://www.valve.demon.co.uk/

    Vintage Radio and Test Equipment Site http://www.geocities.com/eb5agv/

    Vintage Radio World http://www.burdaleclose.freeserve.co.uk/

    Vintage Radio and Audio Pages http://www.mcallister.simplenet.com/

    VMARS http://www.vmars.org.uk/

    W7FG VINTAGE MANUALS CATALOGUE http://www.w7fg.com/index.html

    Ye Olde Hurdy Gurdy Museum of Vintage Radio http://ei5em.110mb.com/museum.html



    Valve Audio and Valve data Ake’e Tube Data http://w1.871.telia.com/~u87127076/index.htm CVC http://www.chelmervalve.com/index.html

    Data Sheet Locator http://www.duncanamps.co.uk/cgi-bin/tdsl3.exe/

    Eimac http://www.cpii.com/eimac/index.html

    Frank’s Electron tube Pages http://home.wxs.nl/~frank.philipse/frank/frank.html

    Hammond  Manufacturing http://www.hammondmfg.com/

    House of Tubes http://www.house-of-tubes.com/home/Library.asp

    High Voltage Tube Archive http://www.funet.fi/pub/sci/electrical/tesla/tubes/

    Kiewavly http://home.mira.net/~kiewavly/audio1.html

    Industrial Valve Data http://www.netcomuk.co.uk/~wwl/data.html

    Machmat http://www.machmat.com/

    NJ7P Tube Data Search http://hereford.ampr.org/cgi-bin/tube?index=1

    RCA-R10 Data http://www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/~reese/RC10/

    SAS Audio Labs http://www.sasaudiolabs.com/

    Sowter Audio Transformers http://www.sowter.co.uk/

    Spice Valves http://www.duncanamps.com/spicevalves.html

    Tubetec http://www.tubetec.freeserve.co.uk/

    TUBEWORLD INC. http://www.tubeworld.com/

    Tube datasheets http://www.wps.com/archives/tube-datasheets/index.html

    Vacuum Tube Links http://www.michelletroutman.com/tubes.htm

    Valves and Tubes http://www.euramcom.freeserve.co.uk/tubes.html

    Valve Data Links http://www.thevalvepage.com/links/valvdata.htm

    Valve Data http://www.arrakis.es/~igapop/referenc.htm

    Valves Unlimited http://www.valvesunlimited.demon.co.uk/Noframes/links.htm

    Valve and Tube Supplies http://www.valves.uk.com/

    Valveamps.com http://www.valveamps.com/



    Audio

    Audio Calculators and Links http://www.audioscientific.com/Audio Calculators & References Links.htm

    BKC GROUP http://www.bkcgroup.fsnet.co.uk/

    Car Audio Australia http://www.caraudioaustralia.com/

    DIY Audio http://www.diyaudio.com/

    Duncan’s Amp Pages http://www.duncanamps.com/

    Elliott Sound Products http://sound.westhost.com/audiolink.htm

    GM ARTS http://users.chariot.net.au/~gmarts/

    Norman Koren http://www.normankoren.com/Audio/

    Rane http://www.rane.com/

    The Self Site http://www.dself.demon.co.uk/

    The Class-A Amplifier Site http://www.gmweb.btinternet.co.uk/



    Magazines

    DUBUS (VHF magazine) http://www.dubus.org/

    Elektor Electronics http://www.elektor-electronics.co.uk/

    Harlan Technologies (Amateur Television Quarterly) http://www.hampubs.com/

    Radio & Communications Monitoring Monthly http://www.monitoringmonthly.co.uk/

    SILICON CHIP http://www.siliconchip.com.au/

    VHF Communications Mag http://www.vhfcomm.co.uk/



    SETI

    SETI http://www.setileague.org/homepg.htm

    SETI Australia http://www.seti.org.au/

    D-Star IC2820 VK5 ICF – updated

    I recently downloaded the IC2820 V19a channel mapping for the ICOM 2820 from IC2820_VK5RWN_C_V19a.icf.

    After uploading the file to the radio I discovered that many of the simplex channels I previously used on my IC2820 were now gone (not surprising). Lucky I copied the original radio config to a new .icf file before I uploaded the new one.

    One frustrating thing I did discovered with the 2820 cloning software is that the EXPORT function appears to only export the stations heard by the radio to CSV and no the full radio configuration. A full copy of the config can only be stored in the native .icf file format, which is full of numbers (looks like memory contents). So manually editing the config file was out of the question.

    eg.

    00001008C2169C000927C0564B32524453414C
    001010564B3552574E2043564B3552574E2047
    0020107220208101090000564B325244532041
    00301008C2169C000927C0564B32524453434C

    For those who have played with the software (CS-2820), you may have noticed that you can only spawn one instance. So copying the frequencies from my old config to the new config (the above link plus my original mapping) was not going to be as easy as I thought i.e export both and combine in notepad or excel.

    I discovered that it is possible to highlight and copy multiple lines in the channel map (only in the application copy buffer, not in the windows clipboard – can’t copy it to excel or notepad). Once you have copied the lines you want from the original config select ‘File – Open’ from the menu and open the new config (in my case the above file – renamed). If the application has not been closed it is possible to place the cursor where you want to add the channels from the old config and select paste (control v) and the copied rows will then be placed into the new config.

    I originally based my simplex frequencies (2m and 70cm) on the AREG frequencies in the modified ham Motorola Syntrx radios located on the AREG website.

    VK5 – 2M Syntrx Frequency Plan – Issued 22/11/2005
    VK5 – 70cm Syntrx Frequency Plan – Issued 22/11/2005

    The new updated file containing the new D-Star mapping, supplemented by my slightly modified AREG simplex channels can be located here.

    IC2820_VK5TCP_C_V1

    Here is a screen print.

    CS-2820 copy screen print

    CS-2820 copy screen print

    This is the .icf file converted to a .xls (csv to xls – from excel). The conversion can be done with CHIRP.

    The Freq and channel file: 2820h

    I hope this information helps someone.

    Nmap Examples

    Some Nmap examples I thought I would post.

    Scanning past Watchguard Firewalls: nmap -sS -iL targetlist.txt -P0 -sV -T4

    Verbose Scan: nmap -v

    This option scans all reserved TCP ports on the target machine. The -v option enables verbose mode.

    nmap -sS -O /24

    Launches a stealth SYN scan against each machine that is up out of the 256 IPs on “class C” sized network where Scanme resides. It also tries to determine what operating system is running on each host that is up and running. This requires root privileges because of the SYN scan and OS detection.

    nmap -sV -p 22,53,110,143,4564 198.116.0-255.1-127

    Launches host enumeration and a TCP scan at the first half of each of the 255 possible eight-bit subnets in the 198.116 class B address space. This tests whether the systems run SSH, DNS, POP3, or IMAP on their standard ports, or anything on port 4564. For any of these ports found open, version detection is used to determine what application is running.

    nmap -v -iR 100000 -PN -p 80

    Asks Nmap to choose 100,000 hosts at random and scan them for web servers (port 80). Host enumeration is disabled with -PN since first sending a couple probes to determine whether a host is up is wasteful when you are only probing one port on each target host anyway.

    nmap -PN -p80 -oX logs/pb-port80scan.xml -oG logs/pb-port80scan.gnmap 216.163.128.20/20

    This scans 4096 IPs for any web servers (without pinging them) and saves the output in grepable and XML formats.

    Instead of limiting ourselves to scanning just one target., let’s broaden our horizon’s to bigger and better things. In example 2 we used our IP address to base a scan against. Using that address again we can get a look at numerous targets in our “community”. At the command line type the following (substituting a valid address of your choice of course):

    nmap -sT -O 206.212.15.0-50

    What this does is instruct nmap to scan every host between the IP addresses of 206.212.15.0 and 206.212.15.50. If you happen to find many interesting feedback results from this or a larger scale scan then you can always pipe the output into your choice of a human readable file or a machine parsable file for future reference by issuing the following option:

    To create a human readable output file issue the -oN command into your nmap string so that it would look similar to this:

    nmap -sT -O -oN sample.txt 206.212.15.0-50

    Rather have a machine parsable file? Enter the -oM to pipe the output into a machine parsable file:

    nmap -sT -O -oM sample.txt 206.212.15.0-50

    *Back when I was becoming aquatinted with all the nmap options, I ran my first large scale scan against 250 consecutive machines using an arbitrary number (nmap -sX -O -oN sample.txt XXX.XXX.XXX.0-250).To my great surprise I was confronted with 250 up and running virgin Linux machines. Another reason why Linux enthusiasts should NEVER become bored.

    -I This is a handy little call that activates nmap’s TCP reverse ident scanning option. This divulges information that gives the username that owns available processes. Let’s take a look (Note that the host has to be running ident). At the command line issue this command against your target, in this case our default Eve running Linux:

    -iR Use this command to instruct nmap to scan random hosts for you.

    -p Port range option allows you to pick what port or ports you wish nmap to scan against.

    -v Use verbosity to display more output data. Use twice (-v -v) for maximum verbosity.

    -h Displays a quick reference of nmap’s calls

    Now that we have looked at nmap’s three basic usage types and some of it’s other options, let’s mix and match them.

    nmap -v -v -sS -O 209.212.53.50-100

    This instructs nmap to use a maximum amount of verbosity to run a stealth scan and OS detection against all machines between IP addresses 209.212.53.50 and 209.212.53.100. This command will also require root privileges due to both the -sS and -O calls. Of course this will display a very overwhelming amount of data so let’s log our results into a human readable file for future reference:

    nmap -v -v -sS -O -oN sample.txt 209.212.53.50-100

    Now let’s make nmap run a stealth scan and instruct it to look only for machines offering http and ftp services between the addresses of 209.212.53.50 and 209.212.53.100. Once again we will log the output (I’m a log junkie) for future reference into a human readable file called ftphttpscan.txt:

    nmap -sS -p 23,80 -oN ftphttpscan.txt 209.212.53.50-100

    Remember the -iR option mentioned previously? Let’s use it to take a random sampling of Internet web servers using the verbatim example from nmap’s man page:

    nmap -sS -iR -p 80

    Last but certainly not least, while gleaning information, don’t forget to nmap yourself. Just type at the command line: nmap 127.0.0.1 This is especially useful and recommended if you’re a newcomer to Linux and connected to the Internet via DSL or cable modem.

    Detect promiscuous network devices or sniffers on a network

    Old versions       nmap –script=promiscuous 10.0.1.0/24

    New Versions     nmap -sV –script=sniffer-detect 10.0.1.0/24

    How To Hijack Fast Food Drive-Thru Frequencies

    This is an article I found on the Phone Losers site I thought I would copy here so I can give it a go at some stage.

    How To Hijack Fast Food Drive-Thru Frequencies

    A few years back, some friends and I were messing around with a Taco Bell’s drive-thru frequencies. RijilV and isotek showed me how easy it was to hijack the frequencies of just about any fast food restaurant with a very simple mod to a ham radio. The radios they used were Yaesu VX-5 and VX-7 models. We had a few weeks of occasional fun, sitting a few parking lots away and saying all kinds of horrible things to potential fast food customers. For the most part, I didn’t record any of it. But you can find a few clips of our fast food hijinks if you scroll down on the PLA Sound Clips Archive page.

    Finally we decided to capture a bit of our FCC violations on video. But instead of capturing actual customers being harassed by us as they placed an order, I drove through the Taco Bell drive-thru myself with a video camera sitting on the dashboard. As I attempted to place my order, RijilV informed me of some crazy new Taco Bell policies and a manager immediately rushed out to explain to me that I wasn’t actually talking to an employee. Here is that video:

    After spending several years on Google Video and YouTube, it’s been watched approximately 20,000 times. And of those 20,000 people who have viewed it, approximately all of them have emailed me and asked me what kind of radio we used and how can they use a radio to do the same thing. So in the spirit of April 1st and in order to quell the number of emails sent to me and posts on the PLA Forums asking the same thing, I’ve decided to write this tutorial to help those people out.

    But I’m not going to explain how to modify a Yaesu VX5 or a Yaesu VX7. A simple Google search will show you how to modify these ham radios. The problem with these mods is that, even though they’re fairly simple, you have to buy the radios which could cost you anywhere from $200 – $400. Then, after removing a couple solder points, you have to learn how to use it, you have to look up fast food frequency lists, you have to understand the difference between the transmit frequencies and the receive frequencies and you have to scroll through PL tones using trial and error to find the correct one.

    Or how about we do this a different way. A way that uses a couple items that you might already have in your home. You can easily modify most old CB radios in a way that will allow them to transmit directly to drive-thru frequencies. You won’t have to scroll through hundreds of possible drive-thru frequencies, because a CB radio’s channels line up in exactly the same way as most drive-thru’s channels, only at a higher frequency. How do you get your CB radio to run at a higher frequency? A simple replacement of the crystal inside, with a 6.5536 MHz crystal. This triples the megahertz that are broadcast on and there is no learning required. You just take the modified CB radio to a fast food restaurant and start broadcasting to the customers.

    “But RBCP, I don’t have a 6.5536 MHz crystal lying around my house,” you might be whining at this point. But this isn’t true. Just about any house has several 6.5536 MHz crystals in them if you know where to look. This just happens to be the exact same crystal that you can find in electric heaters, hair dryers, electric stoves, curling irons, electric hot water heaters, irons, and toasters. These crystals are in just about any item that has heated coils and are used to control the frequency of the heating elements so that they don’t burn your house down.

    So for this modification you need…

    • 1 CB radio. It has to be a 40 channel CB radio with a digital display, which includes just about any CB radio manufactured after the mid 1980’s. The old 23 channel CBs from the 1970’s will not work. It can even be a walkie talkie CB radio. If you don’t have one, you can find one at Goodwill or a yard sale for probably less than $10.
    • 1 toaster. (Or other item with heating elements inside.) A toaster is the most ideal to use, because it’s almost guaranteed to have the crystal inside of it. It’s more common to find curling irons and hair dryers that don’t. Again, it should be a toaster manufactured within the past 20 years or so. Before that they didn’t have crystal requirements for toaster manufacturers. (And incidentally, there were a lot more electrical house fires back then.) Goodwill will probably have a toaster for less than $10.
    • 1 soldering iron and solder. Don’t worry if you don’t have soldering experience. It’s actually pretty easy. Click here for a soldering tutorial. You can purchase a soldering iron at Radio Shack or Sears for about $10.
    • A few screwdrivers

    Even if you have to buy all these materials, you’re only out $30. That’s a lot better than the $300 you might end up spending on a Yaesu radio. And some of you might already have all these items so you don’t have to pay anything. Ask a friend or a relative if they’ve got an old toaster or CB radio lying around that they don’t need.

    First you’ll want to take apart your toaster. This isn’t too hard. Just flip it upside down and start removing the screws. You’ll probably need to pull off the plastic lever and knobs before you remove the top of the toaster. Once you have the top off, you’ll see a green or brown circuit board inside.

    Flip the circuit board down and you’ll see all the components on the other side, including the 6.5536 MHz crystal. The crystal is silver and will have 6.5 stamped on the side of it. In the picture below, I’ve used an arrow to show you where it’s located.

    The crystal is likely in a different spot in other toasters, but it’s hard to mistake for any other electronic component. The crystal will have some form of 6.5 stamped on the side of it. In my toaster, it showed 6.55-12. While the official frequency needed is 6.5536 MHz, anything within 1.6 megahertz will work. So don’t worry if your crystal just says 6.5 or 6.50 – it’s all the same for our purposes.

    It’s kind of hard to see what I’m doing in the picture above, but I’m heating up the leads on the crystal from underneath with my soldering iron to melt the solder, and I’m pulling on the crystal from above with a pair of needle nose pliers. It only takes a few seconds to get the crystal out of the toaster.

    Now that the crystal is out of your toaster, throw your toaster away! Do not attempt to use it once the crystal is removed. Remember, the crystal is in there for safety and using your toaster without the crystal could burn your toast and/or start a kitchen fire. It’s likely your toaster won’t even turn on with the missing crystal, but please don’t even try. Just throw it away.

    As I mentioned before, just about any brand and model of CB radio will work, as long as it has the digital display on it. Which means, just about any CB radio manufactured after the mid 1980’s. These are the kinds of CB radios whose frequencies are controlled by a single crystal inside of them. For my mod, I used a Radio Shack TRC-207 walkie talkie CB radio, which is pictured above. I prefer using a walkie talkie CB radio because it doesn’t requiring sticking a huge CB antenna on the roof of my car which might be noticed if a fast food employee starts looking around the parking lot for the culprits.

    Taking apart your CB radio is just as easy as taking apart the toaster. Remove the screws and pop it open. You may or may not have to lift up the circuit board inside to find the crystal inside. In my particular model, the crystal actually plugged into a socket so I didn’t need to even desolder the old crystal. I just pulled it out with my fingers and then plugged in the new 6.55 MHz crystal. I don’t know how common this is, because in other CB radios that I’ve modified the crystal was soldered to the circuit board, just like in the toaster.

    Put your CB back together and test it to make sure it’s working. You’re finished! Obviously, you won’t be able to talk on normal CB channels anymore since your CB is transmitting and receiving at a much higher frequency now. But who cares, CB channels are lame anyway. Let’s hop in the car and drive to our nearest fast food establishment to test it out.

    Sit near the drive-thru and wait for a customer to pull up. While the customer is talking to the drive-thru speaker, start flipping through your channels until you hear them talking. I’ve found that most drive thrus end up being somewhere in the 16 – 25 channel range. I’ve never found one above channel 30 and only a few on channels 1 through 15. It all depends on how their drive-thru is set up and what frequencies they’re using. Anyway, push down your talk button and start talking to the customer.

    The cool thing about using a CB radio to transmit on drive-thru frequencies is that a CB is designed to work for several miles. The headsets that those fast food people wear are only designed to work for about 100 feet. So you can easily overpower the employees, even if you’re several parking lots away. In fact, you may be inadvertently screwing with several other drive-thrus in town without even knowing it. This is more likely when you’re using the kind of CB radio that’s supposed to be installed in a car. Those usually run on 5 watts and can cover an entire city. This is another reason I like to use my walkie talkie. It’s lucky if it will work for even a mile, so I’m only harassing one restaurant at a time.

    If you found this tutorial useful, you might also enjoy the video I’ve made on the same subject. It includes much of the same information in this tutorial, but also includes actual footage of us messing with a drive-thru with this CB mod. Enjoy!

    You might also enjoy our original Taco Bell Takeover video, our Happy Birthday drive-thru video and our Drive-Thru Shenanigans video.

    icon for podpress PLA TV: Hijacking Fast Food Frequencies [9:12m]: Download (4913)

    Local Copy

    The EDinburgh Great Shiraz Challenge

    Kerry and I went along to the EDinburgh Cellars Great Shiraz Challenge.

    Between Kerry and I we tasted more than 25 great wines over a harrowing 2.5 hours of hustle and bustle in a huge tent in the ED’s carpark. It was great, we both thought that it was well worth the $30/head entry fee.

    One of the great things was the amount of large and small wine companies presenting their spoils. Refreshingly many of the tasting areas were manned by the wine maker, winery owner or someone of similar stature. This made for great conversations and allowed us to find other great non-mainstream wineries on the day.

    As Kerry (Wine group – 9yrs) and I (Corporate) both worked for SouthCorp (Prior to Fosters), we agreed that we would be looking for the special wines of the day. Well we did grab an RWT on the way out as the last tasting for the day – we are not stupid.

    We had a great day overall and purchased and ordered some great wins at the Cellars after the event.

    It was great catching up with Barb and Karel from Lengs and Cooter Wines and taste some of their great wines. Barb used to work at SouthCorp for many years and Karl worked at Telstra, but Kerry and I agree that they make great wines.

    Of the wines in the winning list below our favourites are:

    2006 Woodstock “The Stocks” Shiraz

    2004 Bullers Caliope Shiraz

    2006 Hentley Farm “The Beast” Shiraz

    2005 d’Arenberg Dead Arm Shiraz

    2006 Glaetzer ‘Bishop’ Shiraz

    Other top votes from us for the day are:

    2008 Mike Press Adelaide Hills Shiraz (It’s been a long time since we’ve tasted such a good cheap wine)

    2007 Honey MoonVineyard Adelaide Hills Shiraz

    2004 Lengs & Cooter Old Vines Shiraz

    2004 Lengs & Cooter Reserve Shiraz

    2005 Artful Dodger Barossa Shiraz

    2007 Veronique Regions Shiraz

    2006 Cape Jaffa La Lune Biodynamic Shiraz

    2006 Ceravolo Sparkling Shiraz

    2007 Yelland & Papps Greenock Shiraz

    Results – Shiraz Challenge

    Shiraz Day 2008 was a massive hit, with a record crowd of over 900 slurping through a field of just over 300 Shiraz. As always, we ask attendees to vote for their favourite wine of the day, and congratulations goes to Clarendon Hills for their superbly compelling 2006 Liandra Shiraz. Here’s the full list of the Top 20:

    2006 Clarendon Hills Liandra Syrah

    2005 Torbreck Factor Shiraz

    2005 Langmeil Freedom 1843 Shiraz

    2006 Hentley Farm ‘The Beast’ Shiraz

    2005 Whistler Reserve Shiraz

    2006 Penfolds RWT Shiraz

    2005 Wild Witch Shiraz

    2005 d’Arenberg Dead Arm Shiraz

    2005 Dutschke St Jakobi Shiraz

    2006 Woodstock ‘The Stocks’ Shiraz

    2006 Brick Kiln Shiraz

    2004 Bullers Caliope Shiraz

    2006 Hentley Farm ‘The Beauty’

    2005 Pikes ‘The E.W.P’ Shiraz

    2004 Paracombe Somerville Shiraz

    2006 Kalleske Greenock Shiraz

    2005 Bendbrook Goat Track Shiraz

    2004 Penfolds St Henri Shiraz

    2004 Bethany Wines GR9 Reserve

    2005 Paxton EJ Shiraz

    TOP 20 UNDER $30:

    2005 Tin Shed Melting Pot Shiraz

    2004 Carlei Estate ‘Green Vineyard’

    2004 Majella Shiraz

    2007 Torbreck Woodcutters Shiraz

    2005 Hugo Shiraz

    2006 Tar & Roses Shiraz

    2004 Whistler Shiraz

    2005 2 Mates Shiraz McLaren Vale

    2005 d’Arenberg Footbolt Shiraz

    2006 Mitolo Jester Shiraz

    2006 Guichen Bay Vineyards Reserve

    2006 Pirathon Shiraz by Kalleske

    2006 Scarpantoni Block 3 Shiraz

    2006 Naked Run Barossa Shiraz

    2006 Bird in Hand Shiraz

    2006 O’Leary Walker Shiraz

    2006 Glaetzer ‘Bishop’ Shiraz

    2007 Paxton Quandong Shiraz

    2006 Trevor Jones ‘Boots’ Shiraz

    2005 Dutschke Gods Hill Road Shiraz

    d’Arenberg

    Trojan software has been found in ATMs located in Eastern Europe

    This is Great, I want one of these cards and a list of ATM’s.

    http://www.sophos.com/blogs/gc/g/2009/03/18/details-diebold-atm-trojan-horse-case/

    http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/03/17/trojan_targets_diebold_atms/

    From the Security Now Podcast http://www.grc.com/sn/sn-200.htm

    Steve: It’s like, oh, goodness, yeah. It’s quite something. So the big news, though, I just sort of had to kind of smile because I told all of our listeners this was going to happen. I said just wait, this is a bad idea, we’re going to see how bad it is. Trojans have – Trojan software has been found in ATMs located in Eastern Europe.
    Leo: Oh. Oh.
    Steve: From many different vendors.
    Leo: Oh, dear.
    Steve: But what one thing do all of the trojan-infected ATMs have in common, Leo?
    Leo: Let me guess.
    Steve: Mm-hmm.
    Leo: Windows?
    Steve: Windows XP.
    Leo: Ai yi yi.
    Steve: The LSASS service is the manager of protected content in the system. It’s not quite the right acronym. I can’t think of what it is right now. But it’s like the main security service. And fake ones have been found in the Windows directory. The LSASS EXE normally lives in the Windows System32 directory. They were written in Borland’s Delphi.
    Leo: You’re kidding.
    Steve: No.
    Leo: Well, that’s kind of sophisticated for a hacker. Wow.
    Steve: And it’s considered, I mean, it’s commercial-grade code. It’s good code.
    Leo: Oh, boy.
    Steve: These are not remote installation Trojans. It’s believed that somebody had to have access to the machines.
    Leo: Oh, even worse.
    Steve: But they have special credit cards. When they swipe the special credit card in the infected machine, it accesses the trojan software, which among other things allows them to dump out all the cash from the machine. But in the meantime it’s logging all of the users’ information and PINs, which it’s able to dump out encrypted with DES encryption from the printer, from the ATM printer in the front of the machine.
    Leo: Wow.
    Steve: So the – and anyway, so it’s interesting to me. Again, it’s, you know, people defended the idea of implementing these things that I contend should never have been written in Windows. They say, well, but it’s easier to write them. And it’s like, yes.

    DUKPT Overview and Transaction notes

    Hi,

    I was asked on another post relating to DUKPT to provide some backgound. Given I have lots of material on the subject, I thought I would create this thread. Link

    I will come back at some stage and expand on this when I get time.

    Transaction Process narrative:

    The diagram describes a mobile terminal/ATM is described using the a AS2805 (‘2805’) message type and 3DES DUKPT and dual direction auth SSL from the terminal to the aquirer (transaction switch).

    A good explanation of DUKPT can also be found at Wikipedia.

    Diagram of the flow

    DUKPT transaction flow - terminal to bank

    DUKPT transaction flow - terminal to bank

    Background notes:

    • The terminal or ATM firstly encrypts the user entered pin (may be a unique DUKPT key or static, depending on the design and banks involved) prior to incorporating it into the AS 2805 transaction message.
    • the message is then encrypted again using the DUKPT key which has been established through the merchant logon process within the aquirer Host Security Module (HSM) i.e. the user entered pin is encrypted separately and encapsulated within the DUKPT encrypted 2805 message to provide full message encryption.
    • In the diagram a separate dual authenticating SSL session is also used between the terminal/ATM and the aquirers infrastructure. This allowing the transaction including the pin to traverse the external Wired/GPRS/LAN within 2 primary independent layers of encryption, with a 3rd protecting the PIN.
    • When the transaction enters the aquirer environment the message encapsulation layer provided by SSL is removed.  This leaving the DUKPT’ed 2805 message which also encapsulates the separately encrypted PIN.
    • This encrypted message is passed to the aquirer switch engine through to the aquirer’s HSM for decryption of the 2805 message excluding the user entered pin.
    • This is when transactional information necessary for aquirer’s merchant reporting (truncated card number, transaction amount, transaction type, etc.) and fraud management data is collected.
    • The aquirer switch then passes the encrypted PIN to the aquirer HSM requesting that the PIN be decrypted using the aquirer’s PIN encryption and translated to the next banks (Bank 1)  PIN Encryption Key (Pin translation only occurs within the aquirer HSM) This is then sent back to the aquirer Switch engine as the Bank 1 encrypted PIN.
    • The aquirer switch engine then send the decrypted 2805 message with the newly encrypted PIN back to aquirer HSM to be encrypted with the Bank 1 MAC key.
    • The resultant Bank 1 key encrypted message is then sent to Bank 1 for processing and/or passing to the card issuer (using a similar process as described above).
    • When the result is received back from the issuing bank it is encrypted with the Bank 1 MAC key (the pin will not be present in the result message).
    • This is then decrypted by the aquirer HSM, the transaction fate result stored into the aquirer merchant reporting system and the transaction fate re-encrypted with the original aquirer DUKPT key (should be different per terminal/merchant instance) and the result sent back to the terminal through the original established SSL encrypted terminal connection.

    The aquirer may terminate the the SSL connection on a hardware device such as a CISCO Content Service Switch (CSS), or equivalent instead of the design described in the diagram which terminates onto a SSL session server/gateway (Possibly including a Certificate Authority) or on the aquirer transaction switch.

    When PIN blocks are received by the aquirer processing centre, the PIN encryption is translated from the terminal key to the Local Master Key (LMK) by the Host Security Modules (HSM).

    When the message is sent on the upstream bank interchange link to the issuer or gateway , the aquirer HSM translates the encrypted PIN block from the LMK to the Zone Master Key (ZMK) of the aquirer interchange link. The PIN block is always encrypted using DEA3 (3DES) whenever outside of the Terminal or ATM.

    HSM-8000-User Guide V2.2

    Secure Application Development links

    Hi,

    I have been putting some secure application development documents together recently and have found some good general tutorials and guidelines which I thought I would post here.

    Best Practices

    Other Resources